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How are graphite electrodes used for steelmaking EAF?

Graphite electrode


The process of making steel is complicated and very technical, but it’s easy to understand the basics. Electric arc furnaces (EAFs) are used to create steel by melting iron ore and other materials to extract pure iron from them. Electric arc furnaces work similarly to traditional blast furnaces, except they use electricity rather than coal or natural gas as their energy source. In this article, we’ll explore graphite electrodes used in electric arc furnaces, who uses them and why, how much current passes through a typical EAF electrode, and how long they last before needing replacement.

How are graphite electrodes used for steelmaking EAF steel production?

Graphite electrodes are used in electric arc furnaces as a source of carbon for steelmaking. Electric arc furnaces refine iron and produce steel, providing the heat necessary to melt iron ore, remove impurities from the molten iron product, and create slag that separates from purer metal.

Melting the Raw Materials:
Electric Arc Furnaces utilize graphite electrodes to generate intense heat through an electric arc. The electrodes are inserted vertically into the EAF, and when an electric current passes through them, it creates a high-temperature arc between the electrodes and the metallic charge inside the furnace. This arc rapidly heats and melts the raw materials, including scrap steel and other metal components, transforming them into a molten state.

Facilitating the Steel Refining Process:
Once the raw materials are melted, graphite electrodes continue to play a crucial role in the refining stage of steelmaking. During this process, various operations are performed to adjust the chemical composition, remove impurities, and control temperature. Graphite electrodes provide the necessary heat and electrical conductivity to carry out these refining processes effectively.

Continuous Casting:
In the final stage of steelmaking, where the molten steel is cast into various shapes, graphite electrodes are utilized in continuous casting processes. They aid in maintaining the temperature of the molten steel, preventing premature solidification during casting, and providing electrical current to facilitate solidification and the formation of a solid steel product.

Use of graphite electrodes for steel making-Graphite manufacturer


What are the grades of graphite electrodes used for steelmaking EAF?

Graphite electrodes are made from petroleum coke and pitch coke, mixed with a binder, and pressed into a mold. The proportions of these ingredients may vary depending on the grade of graphite you are using. The most commonly used grades in EAF include:

  • Ultra High Power Graphite (UHP) electrodes
  • High Power Graphite (HP) electrodes
  • Regular Power Graphite (RP) electrodes

How much current passed through the graphite electrodes used for steelmaking EAF?

The amount of current that passes through a typical graphite electrode is usually in the range of 10-20 A. For example, a large electrode might have a current density of over 100 A/cm2. This means that you must be careful when handling these electrodes because they are hot!

What type of steel does an Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) produce?

You can make steel in an electric arc furnace (EAF) by heating iron ore and coke to a temperature of 2,700°F (1,500°C). By taking iron and adding carbon to it, people make steel.

EAFs use graphite electrodes to heat the charge of iron ore and coke. People call these electrodes tungsten carbide electrodes. Because at high temperatures, tungsten carbide ceramic fibers with high wear resistance.


Graphite electrodes used for steelmaking EAF-graphite electrode supplier


Why do many EAFs use three electrodes rather than one or two?

A 3-electrode EAF can produce more heat and thus steel than a 1- or 2-electrode EAF. This allows for faster electrode changes and longer periods between changes, which can result in significant time savings for the steel mill.

How long does a typical EAF electrode last, and what factors affect that?

Your answer will depend on the type of graphite electrodes, how much current passes through them, and what kind of steel you’re producing. Also important: how much coke (fuel) is using the charge?

How to change out an electrode? That is a difficult process.

When a graphite electrode reaches the end of its useful life, the steelmaker removes it from the furnace and replaces it with a new one. The electrode changeout process is complex and requires coordination between many people. Steelmakers need to maintain communication with their graphite electrode suppliers. Doing so ensures that there is a sufficient stock of electrodes in case they will require them. If not, a delay can happen, which will cause delays in production and losses for everyone involved.

In industrial production, furnace operators must always have adequate backup power available. This allows a smooth transition from normal operating mode to backup power mode in an emergency such as a power outage. If there is backup power, then there is no interruption to the production of the plant.No high costs due to downtime associated with changing graphite electrodes in the EAF, which can take hours.


Graphite electrodes’ high electrical conductivity, thermal resistance, and mechanical strength make them ideal for withstanding the extreme conditions inside the EAF. Their ability to withstand high temperatures, efficiently transfer electrical energy, and participate in the refining and casting processes make them an essential component in modern steelmaking through EAFs. We hope this article gave you some insight into how to make steel in the industry.