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Carbon Electrode

carbon electrode manufacturer and suppier
The main raw materials of carbon electrodes are petroleum coke, anthracite, and metallurgical coke. Sometimes, a tiny amount of graphitized fragments are added, a carbonaceous conductive material made by batching, molding, roasting, and mechanical processing. Carbon electrodes are used in medium and small electric arc furnaces and electric furnaces to produce ferroalloys, yellow phosphorus, and corundum as conductive electrodes.

What is a Carbon Electrode?

Carbon conductive electrodes, also known as carbon electrodes, are made from petroleum coke, pitch coke, etc. as the main raw materials. They can be processed into finished products after roasting. Because carbon electrodes are not graphitized, their resistivity is higher than graphite electrodes.

They have excellent electrical conductivity. This is because it is mainly composed of covalently bonded carbon atoms covered with metallic bonds, which is conducive to the flow of free electrons and has low resistivity.


Carbon electrodes are mainly used in submerged arc furnaces. The smelting varieties include industrial silicon, yellow phosphorus, ferroalloys, calcium carbide and other metals or non-metals.

In the industrial silicon smelting process, electric current passes through the conductor electrode and the furnace charge, converting electrical energy into thermal energy for high-temperature smelting.

Main Feature:

Electrical Conductivity: They possess exceptional electrical conductivity, which promotes efficient electrical energy transmission. This attribute makes them suitable for applications necessitating electric current passage.

Mechanical Strength: They have significant mechanical strength, enabling them to endure mechanical stresses and strains during operations. This quality is vital for applications that deal with mechanical forces or vibrations.

Thermal Robustness: They demonstrate high thermal stability, which allows them to endure high temperatures without significant degradation. This feature is particularly important for processes that involve high heat, like electric arc furnaces or resistance heating.

Chemical Inertness: They are corrosion resistant and chemically nonreactive. This property makes them applicable in aggressive environments where other materials would degrade.

Carbon electrodes for smelting calcium carbide Carbon electrodes for smelting ferroalloys

Advantages in Manufacturing:

The production of raw materials for carbon electrodes is relatively simple as it eliminates the graphitization process. This leads to lower costs than graphite electrodes, as graphitization is energy-intensive.

Carbon electrodes can be fabricated in submerged arc furnaces with larger diameters, retaining the same capacity as graphite electrodes. By producing carbon electrodes with diameters ranging from Φ600 to Φ1400mm, the arc belt in the furnace broadens, ensuring a stable arc. This guarantees better thermal melting efficiency, increased product output, and lower power consumption.

Carbon electrodes, serving as conductive electrodes in submerged arc furnaces, offer substantial advantages in cost reduction. They aid in energy conservation, emission reduction, and enhancing smelting efficiency and safety.


Physical &Chemical Properties Of Electrode 

Property Unit Value
Resistivity μΩ.m 11.0
Flexural Strength MPa 6.0
Young’s Modulus GPa 12.0
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion ×10^-6/℃ 3.2
Density g/cm3 1.58
Carbon content % 90
Ash % 10

A carbon electrode is different from a Graphite electrode.

The specific resistance of carbon electrodes is several times greater than that of graphite electrodes. But the compressive strength at room temperature is greater than that of graphite electrodes. The thermal conductivity and oxidation resistance are better than graphite electrodes. The ash content of carbon electrodes is high, generally 6%-10%, because the ash content of raw materials for its production is high. Therefore, carbon electrodes are mainly used for smelting metals. They can be used in small electric arc furnaces to produce ordinary electric furnace steel and ferroalloys.

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