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Graphite Electrode

graphite electrode-uhp/hp/rp graphite electrode
Graphite electrodes are used for electric arc furnaces, ladle furnaces and submerged arc furnaces. After being energized in the EAF steelmaking, it is used to generate an arc, and the heat of the arc is used to melt and refine steel, non-ferrous metals and their alloys. It is a current conductor in the electric arc furnace, does not melt and deform at high temperatures, and maintains a specific mechanical strength.  There are three types: RP 、HP, and UHP graphite electrode.

What is a graphite electrode?

It is made of petroleum coke and pitch coke, and high-power and ultra-high-power grades are made of needle coke. They have low ash content, good electrical conductivity, heat, and corrosion resistance, and will not melt or deform at high temperatures.

It is mainly used in electric arc steelmaking furnaces and submerged heat and resistance furnaces.  Graphite electrodes for EAF steelmaking account for 70%-80% of the total amount of electrodes.

How does it work?

Electric arc furnace steelmaking introduces current into the steelmaking furnace through graphite electrodes. The strong current is transmitted from the furnace transformer through the cable to the holder at the end of the three electrode arms and flows into the it.

Therefore, between the electrode end and the charge an arc discharge occurs,and the charge begins to melt using the heat generated by the arc. and the charge begins to melt. According to the capacity of the electric furnace, the manufacturer will choose different diameters for use.

To continuously use the electrodes during the smelting process, we connect the electrodes through threaded nipples. Since the cross-section of the nipple is smaller than that of the electrode, the nipple must have higher compressive strength and lower resistivity than the electrode.

In addition, there are various sizes and grades, depending on their use and the specific requirements of the EAF steelmaking process.

Graphite electrodes are used in electric arc furnace steelmaking Graphite electrodes are used in electric arc furnaceGraphite electrodes are used in electric arc furnace for steelmaking



It is a key raw material in the electric arc furnace steelmaking process.  As source of electric energy for an electric arc furnace, which is the most efficient way to heat and melt steel scrap. They conduct electricity from the power source to the furnace, allowing it to reach high temperatures necessary for steel production.

It is baked at high temperatures, creating a material with excellent electrical and thermal conductivity. In addition, it comes in various sizes and grades, depending on their usage and the specific requirements of the steelmaking process.

How to make it?

The production process of RP grade is the same as that of HP and UHP grade. The difference is that the petroleum coke in the raw materials is different. RP  grade uses ordinary petroleum coke, while hp and uhp grades use needle-shaped petroleum coke with good crystallinity.

  • These raw materials are first calcined at a temperature of extremely high, 1250-1350°C.
  • The second step is extruding and forming, called the green body.
  • In the third baking step,  will perform secondary baking on hp and uhp electrodes and nipples. However, the nipple blank will be soaked two times and three times.
  • The fourth step is to put the baked product into a pressure vessel for impregnation.
  • The fifth step is graphitization, a process of high-temperature treatment by electric heating.
  • The final step is machining. We know there are two processes for the body and the nipple.


Graphite Electrode Production Process



The consumption in EAF steelmaking includes average consumption, such as arc light consumption, chemical consumption, and oxidation consumption; abnormal consumption, such as mechanical electrode breakage, common tripping, severe oxidation in the buckle, and expansion of the nipple will cause the electrode to burst, etc. The factory can avoid these situations in production.

The quality of graphite electrodes is critical to the EAF steelmaking process. Poor-quality products can prevent the electric arc from becoming unstable, resulting in incomplete steel melting and decreased productivity. Therefore, it’s essential to ensure that the products are of the highest possible quality.

Main factors affecting the Graphite Electrode Price.

Raw material cost: The price of petroleum coke and needle coke directly affects the production cost of it, and also affects the price.

Price of energy: The production processes of roasting and graphitization require large amounts of electricity, so fluctuations in energy prices may have an impact on the final price.

Development of electric arc furnace technology: The emergence of large-tonnage ultra-high-power electric arc furnaces has put forward higher requirements for the performance of it, and the production process and technology costs have increased accordingly.

Market demand and supply: When the number of electric arc furnaces increases, the demand will inevitably increase, and prices are likely to rise.

Shipping Costs: Price fluctuations in ocean or ground freight, which may play a role in the final price.

International economic situation: changes in trade relations and policies and exchange rate fluctuations may have an impact on the import and export of raw materials, thereby affecting the price.


Your professional graphite electrode supplier in China.

JINSUN offers a wide range of graphite electrodes suitable for steel mills, foundries, smelting plants, etc. We use advanced manufacturing processes to produce high quality products. In addition to this, JINSUN also offers in different grades. It is also available in custom lengths, diameters and designs. Send us your inquiry today!

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