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Application of Graphite Electrode in EAF Steelmaking

Carbon Graphite Products

Graphite electrodes play a vital role in electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking, primarily because of their excellent electrical conductivity and high temperature resistance. The following are some of the key applications of graphite electrodes in EAF steelmaking production:

Melting scrap steel in eaf

EAF is used to melt scrap steel to produce new steel products (carbon steel or alloy steel). Graphite electrodes are good conductors in this process. They carry a strong electric current. This current is converted into a large amount of heat required to melt the scrap steel.

This melting process changes the charge from solid to liquid, and physical and chemical reactions also occur in the electric furnace.

eaf graphite electrode


Graphite electrode oxygen and Lime Infusion

During the EAF steelmaking process, oxygen and lime are typically injected into the molten metal to remove impurities and adjust the chemistry.

The graphite electrode facilitates this process by maintaining the required temperature and providing a stable platform for the injection process.

Eaf steelmaking temperature control

By adjusting electrical parameters, the current is generally adjusted using a secondary voltage. The operator can accurately control the temperature of the molten steel by inputting the power into the furnace.

Graphite electrodes are resistant to oxidation, have a small thermal expansion coefficient. They do not pollute the charge, and do not participate in the reaction in the furnace.

Durability and service life:

Graphite electrodes are selected for their high thermal conductivity, low electrical resistance, and ability to withstand thermal shock and mechanical stress.

This durability ensures they can operate effectively under the extreme conditions of electric arc furnace steelmaking, where temperatures can reach up to 3000°C.


Graphite electrodes are an essential conductor material for the efficient operation of electric arc furnaces in steelmaking. They generate the arc to melt scrap steel, promote oxidation and reduction reactions. Enable precise temperature control, and contribute to the overall quality and consistency of the steel produced.